What happened in North Korea: history
The history of North Korea begins with the Japanese occupation of Korea ended with the conclusion of World War II in 1945. Korea was divided into two parts by the 38th parallel: the Soviet Union (USSR) took control of the North, and the US Army of the South. This led to the fact that in 1948 establish two independent governments in the North and South, each claiming sovereignty over the whole of Korea.
The growing tensions between the governments of North and South led to the Korean War when on 25 June 1950 the army of North Korea crossed the 38th parallel (acting frontier) and attack Korea South. The war continued until 27 July 1953, when the Committee of the United Nations (UN), the volunteers of the Republic of China and North Korea signed the armistice of the Korean War. A demilitarized zone was established to separate the two countries.
North Korea was directed since 1948 by Kim Il-sung until his death on 8 July 1994, being succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il appointed as successor in 1974 and on 8 October 1997 he was appointed General Secretary of the Korean Workers’ Party. In 1998 he was appointed Chairman of the National Defense and its position was declared as “the highest office of state.” Generally improved international relations. Even there was a historic North-South summit in June 2000. However, tensions have again become visible with the resumption by North Korea of its nuclear weapons program.
During the mandate of Kim Jong-il at the end of the decade of the 1990s, the economy fell sharply and food shortages became evident in many areas. According to some aid organizations, but an unknown number of people died as a result of hunger, intensified by a collapse in the system of food distribution. Many North Korea illegally penetrated to China in search of food. North Korea is one of the most isolated places in the world, with severe restrictions on the entry and exit of the country. The press is controlled by the State and mass organizations, and the Juche ideology, which is not to depend on others, it is the government official.
Kim Jong-il died at 69 years in Pyongyang on December 17, 2011 due to mental and physical fatigue being notified state television North Korea two days after the death, and after the death of his father, Kim Jong-un was announced as the “Great Successor” by North Korean state television.
In recent years, its nuclear program has generated controversy among nuclear states, particularly the United States, the objectives of its military development. North Korea, While the government argues that the development of nuclear weapons have a deterrent purpose and eventual defense, the US administration and the European Union consider illegal possession of military nuclear material from North Korea
Division of Korea
The Japanese military occupation of Korea ended with the end of the Second World War and the surrender of Japan, announced on August 15, 1945. On August 8, the Soviet Union broke the non-aggression pact that had signed with Japan in April 1941 and proceeded to the occupation of Manchuria, Korea and Sakhalin and Kuril Islands. On August 10, the US government, which at that time did not have troops deployed in the peninsula, ordered that define two zones of occupation [lower-alpha 1] and choose an arbitrary demarcation along the parallel 38, which was accepted immediately by the Soviets.
After three years in which several projects failed unification on 15 August 1948 the Americans created the Republic of Korea to the south, led by Syngman Rhee, a veteran opposition politician in exile in Hawaii and the invasion Japanese Korea. In response, the Russians recognized on September 9, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, with a government headed by Kim Il-sung, who had fought since 1932 against the Japanese, who considered him one of the guerrilla leaders Koreans most popular and dangerous .
The government adopted an autocratic form north and south began repression of the pro-Communist guerrillas and other left movements, but both regimes, once removed the occupying forces alike aspired to unify the country under his command. They succeeded border provocations and both Rhee and Kim Il-Sung requested support for an invasion, but the Americans and Soviets refused to give them support in the first instance, but ultimately Stalin lent North Korean leader to support limited and conditioned on the acceptance of Mao. Mao reacted cautiously and asked Stalin to confirm the version of Kim while he ordered the exclusion of any Chinese military planning, which included concealing them the same day of the attack.
What happened in the korean war
Korean War refers to the war that faced regimes of North (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) and South (Republic of Korea) in Korea between 1950 and 1953.
While it may be considered a civil war, a lot of factors around, the intervention of the US and the USSR make this a proxy war (proxy war) of the Cold War. The country was divided at the 38th parallel after the Second World War, with Soviet aid to North Americans and helping the south. The Korean War began the concept of “limited war”.
The war faced the Republic of Korea, supported by the US and the UN against North Korea, supported by the Republic of China, with the help of the Soviet Union. The war was the result of the division of Korea by agreement of the victorious Allies of World War II after the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II. The Korean peninsula had remained occupied by Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II, but after the unconditional surrender of the Empire of Japan, the Americans divided peninsula by the 38th parallel north, the north of which was occupied by Soviet troops and the south American troops.
The failure of free elections in the peninsula in 1948 accentuated the division between the two sides, north and established a communist government. The parallel became even more of a political border between the two Koreas. Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war, tension intensified battles and incursions in the border 38. Parallel tensions degenerated into open warfare when North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, which meant the first serious armed conflict of the Cold War.
The United Nations, particularly the United States, come to the aid of South Korea to repel the invasion. However, in just two months defenders were pushed to the Pusan Perimeter, a small area on the southern tip of the peninsula, before the North Koreans were arrested. A quick counter UN returned to the North Koreans past the 38th Parallel, almost to the Yalu River, then entered the conflict China North side. The Chinese launched an offensive that forced the United Nations to return to the other side of the 38th parallel, as the Soviet Union helped with military equipment to North Korean and Chinese armies. In 1953 the war ceased with an armistice that restored the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone, a strip of 4 km in width between both countries. Several outbreaks of fighting continue to produce until now.
With the two Koreas favored by foreign powers, the Korean War was a war subsidiary. From the point of view of military science, combined strategies and tactics of the First and Second World War began with a campaign fast mobile infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids, but became a war static trench from July 1951.
Korea was since the beginning of the century a colony subject to the direct control of Japan, a situation that changed with the Second World War, the Cairo Conference of 1943 decided to withdraw from Korea because it could organize an independent government, but when the country was liberated by the Soviet Union entered the north, the south and the United States. The two armies do not trust him one of the other and refused to retire and accepted the 38th parallel as the natural border dividing the country into two zones of influence. However, Korea did not respond in the same pattern as post-war Germany, with areas of direct employment Interallied but remained divided in the presence of Soviet and American, but maintained footpaths Korean authorities organized autonomously by events. The Americans, afraid that the Communists could enter in Seoul, South maintained the Japanese administrative structure and supported Syngman Rhee. This was installed in power in South Korea with conservative tendencies and anti-active intervention with the United States and was dedicated to purge former collaborators of the Japanese, while to the north, the Soviets support a former guerrilla leader, Kim Il-sung, who won with Soviet and Chinese aid to North Korea a Stalinist court system with a strong personality cult.
Between 1946 and 1947 after failed talks between the United States and the Soviet Union to unify the country in 1948 constituted the two states. In 1948 the UN, which had organized elections that were effective just to the south, declared that South Korea was representing the whole country.
Forgotten the possibility of recovering the unity of the country, elections were summoned to the south by 1949. But politicians from the south, believing that only those deeper fracture in the country, boycotted. With two games presented and a high abstention Syngmann Rhee was elected and amid the euphoria, proclaimed the Republic of Korea and autonomenar was president of the country. Kim Il Sung responded proclaiming the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, while in the south, the Communists (who had become strong) began to launch attacks against Rhee fans with direct confrontations like in Cheju uprising or riots army. The confrontation of troops to the 38th parallel was normalized in 1949.
With hot situation, USSR and the United States withdrawing from the country in 1950. Before leaving, however, some armed and others leave their respective sides. The problem was that the United States, aware that it wanted an open war with the USSR and fearful that Rhee tried to occupy the north left a basically defensive army south.
On 25 June 1950, the war began with an attack by North Korean troops that came to occupy the capital, Seoul, and to control much of the country with the cooperation part of the population. Calculations Americans failed and the southern army was ridiculously armed compared to the North Koreans. The UN demanded the withdrawal of North Korean troops and demanded that helps South Korea only opposed communist states and some in Africa and Asia, in an emergency meeting, decided sent troops to correct the situation. But North Korean forces were released, and UN troops were cornered the “Pusan Perimeter”.
In September 1950, US General Douglas MacArthur, appointed by Harry Truman to lead the US troops, landed in South Korea and began a counter-offensive that resulted in the deaths of more than 150,000 civilians in the province of Pyongyang and nordcoreans lost the Pusan Perimeter and began to retreat. On September 30 they reached the 38th parallel north and 29 October were on the border with China. Was no longer defend beaten the South Koreans, but to crush the North Koreans and the presidency of Rhee proclaimed throughout the country.
In late 1950 the Chinese army intervened in the war and soon occupied Seoul forcing UN troops to retreat. In spring 1951 the US government dismissed MacArthur and limiting the war front reduced contenders initiated conversations that ended with the Peace of Panmunjeom, the armistice of 27 July 1953, which maintained the status quo earlier and consolidated the division of Korea.
The US, very concerned about the possibility of a Third World War, applied the concept of “limited war” in which winning or losing was only relative importance. A year after the war fronts were destabilizing and MacArthur was dismissed after attempting to bomb some areas of North Korea (Operation Hudson). It opened a second phase and military positions, while the Soviets and Americans began negotiations for peace. However, it was difficult to advance the peace agreements in each session so the new military movements poisoning conversations. In 1952, Eisenhower became the new president of the United States and died a year after Stalin and the Soviet regime relaxes. The two situations came together in a final peace agreement on 17 June 1953, between the Soviets, the Americans and North Koreans (South Korean Rhee wanted to continue the war and did not participate). The victims of the war were: 900,000 Chinese, 520,000 Koreans and 150,000 soldiers of the UN in the first war where Western troops faced directly and Communists.
The Korean War was remembered for combat jets, but it was one of the last wars in which participated engine propeller aircraft like the P-51 to P-51 Mustang, F4U Corsair, and Hawker Sea Fury and Supermarine Seafire based carriers with turbojet aircraft like F-80 Shooting Star, F-84 and F9F Panthers Thunderjet that dominated the skies, overwhelming the Yakovlev Yak-9s and Lavochkin La-9s engine propeller.
Since 1950, the North Koreans piloted the jet Mikoyan MiG-15 Soviet-Gurévitx presenting velocities near the speed of sound. Although an open secret during the war, were piloted by experienced pilots from the Air Force, a casus belli deliberately overlooked by the allied forces of the United Nations considered suspicious but they were using Russian reluctant to engage in open war with the Soviet Union and China.
At the beginning of the war jet fighters from the United Nations, including Gloster Meteors of the Royal Australian Air Force had some success, but then were passed on in daylight the MiG’s superior speed. At night, however, the night fighters F3D Skynight of the United States Marine Corps radar fitted Abbot five MiG kills lossless own and no B-29s under their escort was killed.
In December 1950, the United States Air Force were busy in their own poop, the F-86 Sabre. The MiG could fly higher, 50,000 against 42,000 feet, offering a clear advantage in early the combat. Its maximum speeds were comparable (about 1,060 km / h). The MiG could climb better, while Sabre could maneuver better. As for the weapons in the MiG had two 12 mm guns and a 37mm cannon, comparable to six .50 caliber machine guns of the Sabre (12.7 mm). The .50 caliber machine guns American shooting radar guidance systems more accurate. US pilots also had the advantage of antigravity suit.
Even after the United States Air Force F-86 presents advanced, its pilots fought against jets often run by Soviet pilots, baptized “honchos”. The United Nations gradually gained air superiority over most of Korea that lasted until the end of the war, a decisive factor that helped advance northward, and resisència the Chinese invasion of South Korea.
After the war, the Air Force claimed to have shot down 792 MiG-15s and 108 additional aircraft Sabres Sabres and lost 78, a ratio above 10: 1, however some other studies show a ratio of 2: 1 against the best Russian pilots. The search for postwar able to confirm only 379 victories, although the USAF continues his official credits and debate is possibly irreconcilable. The Soviets claimed approximately 1,100 aerial victories and 335 MiG lost in combat at that time. The losses in China were 231 officers killed in air combat aircraft (mainly the MiG-15) and 168 other losses. The number of losses the North Korean Air Force has not been disclosed and it is estimated that 200 aircraft were the first stage of the war, and 70 after the Chinese intervention.
Soviet claims 650 victories and over 211 Chinese Sabres are considered exaggerated by the USAF. According to a recent publication of the US, the number of F-86s ever present on the Korean peninsula during the war amounted to only 674 losses total F-86 from all causes were about 230.
The Korean War was the first in which the helicopter used extensively in conflict while helicopters as YR-4 is rarely used in the Second World War, and as the Willys MB jeeps were main method of evacuating a wounded soldier. Helicopters Sikorsky H-19 as were used for tasks not combative.
Development of War
The triumph of the communist revolution in China on October 1, 1949 completely changed the geo-strategic balance in East Asia. Stalin, who had suffered serious setbacks in Europe (Berlin blockade or failure of the Yugoslav schism), wanted to regain ground in Asia and gave its approval to a North Korean attack on South Korea. Thus, on 25 June 1950, the troops of Kim Il-sung crossed the 38th Parallel and advance toward the south, destroying virtually the South Korean forces, who just could retreat environment Pusan.
The reaction of the Americans, to the surprise of Stalin, was immediate. Washington called for the convening of the United Nations Security Council mandate and managed to put itself at the head of an army to respond to North Korean aggression. The absence of the Soviet delegate, who had refused to attend Board meetings to protest the US refusal to accept China Popular him, led resolution.
Three days earlier, on October 16, Chinese troops with massive Soviet military support penetrated by Korea back to the US Army. On 4 January 1951, the communist troops recapture Seoul.
The Soviet Union meanwhile expressed his intention not to intervene in the conflict and their desire to coexist two different systems on the peninsula. The “tie military” led to the opening of negotiations to conclude in July 1953, shortly after the death of Stalin, with the signing of the Armistice in Panmunjong. It was agreed a new demarcation line snaking around the 38th parallel, which is still maintained.
Regarding the cost of lives was very high; estimated that South Korea and its allies have nearly 778 000 killed, wounded and maimed, while the North Korean side had between 1.187 million and 1.545 million, more than 2.5 million civilians killed or injured, 5 million were left homeless and more than 2 million refugees. This makes it one of the bloodiest wars since the Second World War.
A pair M40 providing fire support to the 25th Infantry Division of the US army in Munem, 26 November 1951.
According communist historiography of South Korea made a first attack. The most accepted version says that on June 25, 1950 North Korean forces were mobilized en masse to the south (100,000). Using Soviet equipment and with enormous reserves, its surprise attack was an overwhelming success. In a few days the military forces in South Korea were already in full retreat, and next to the small number of Americans in Korea, were transiting within a small area around the city of Pusan. With the help of American supplies and support air forces ROK handled and stabilize this border. This began a desperate act attachment called the Pusan Perimeter. Although he got more help from the UN the situation was dangerous, and it seemed that the North could gain control of the entire peninsula.
The invasion of North Korea took by surprise the United States and other Western powers; Dean Acheson, the State Department had expressed to Congress on June 20 that the war was not probable. But a CIA report in early March had planned an invasion in June.
At a public hearing by the invasion, Harry S. Truman agreed with his advisers to use American air force unilaterally against the forces of North Korea. He also ordered the Seventh Fleet to protect Taiwan. The United States also maintained substantial forces in Japan, which allowed room for rapid intervention. The shares were placed under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, who was in charge of American forces in the Pacific. The other Western powers immediately showed their agreement with American actions and offered his help in the conflict.
The Americans organized the Special Operations Group of Smith on July 5 and was taking care of the first shock of the war in North Korea-US.
The American action was carried out for several reasons. Truman was under heavy internal pressure because it was considered too soft on communism. Especially eloquent were those who accused the Democrats simply have to “defeat Chinese.” The intervention was also an excellent way to start the new Truman Doctrine, which advocated opposition to communism anywhere that tried to expand. Later, Truman would receive criticism for not getting a declaration of war from Congress before sending troops to Korea. Because of this conflict, which was called the “War of Truman” had violated in this way, the spirit, if not the letter, of the Constitution of the United States.
Western powers won a mandate for action by the United Nations because the Soviets decided not to appear on the Security Council to protest the refusal that China entered the same, while the Republic China (Nationalist) maintained the political status of Taiwan. Without the Soviet veto only with the abstention of Yugoslavia, the UN voted to help South Korea. United States regardless of the outcome should be fought, and this was demonstrated when Douglas MacArthur later told Congress, “I did not have anything to do with the decision of the UN.” In American forces joined troops during the conflict 15 other UN member countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, the Philippines, France, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom, Union of South Africa, Ethiopia, Turkey and Thailand.
The US forces were suffering at that time caused problems for the demobilization which had started in 1945, after the end of World War II.
The Chinese Nationalists, now confined to Taiwan, asked to participate in the war, but his request was denied by the Americans, who suspected that behind this interest only hidden motivation move the conflict Communist China.
Battle of Incheon
To relieve the pressure on the Pusan perimeter, MacArthur as commander of the UN forces, ordered an invasion of North Korean troops in Incheon. This was an extremely risky operation, but it was also tremendously successful. UN troops managed to reach Incheon, facing only a slight resistance and starting to mobilize quickly to regain Seoul. The North Koreans had started a quick retreat to their supply lines to the north, and UN forces and the Republic of Korea, which had been confined to the south, could then move north and join the troops who were already in Incheon. According to American sources close to 135,000 North Korean soldiers could not retreat and were captured.
The UN troops led the North Koreans back across the 38th parallel north. The goal, which was to save South Korea, had been fulfilled, but the success and the prospect of a union of all Korea under the command of Syngman Rhee pushed the Americans to continue to Korea Nord. Many in the West, including General MacArthur also had the thought that brought widespread war in China was a good idea. Truman and other leaders did not agree, so, MacArthur was ordered to be very cautious when approached on the border of China. However, MacArthur ignored these orders.
The China had warned that it would react if the UN forces exceeded the limit of the border Amnok River. Mao sought Soviet aid and saw intervention as essentially defensive. “If we allow the United States occupy all Korea … we must be prepared for the United States declared war on China …” that was what he told Stalin. Zhou Enlai was sent to Moscow to add strength to the arguments of Mao, who had been sent by cable. Mao delayed his forces while waiting for Soviet aid, and therefore the planned attack was postponed from 13 October to 19 October. The Soviet assistance was limited to providing air support just 60 miles (96 km) from the battlefront. The MiG-15 with the colors of the PRC were an unpleasant surprise to the UN pilots; They maintain local air superiority against the F-80 Shooting Star were deployed until the new F-86 Sabre. The Soviet intervention was known in the United States, but preferred to keep quiet to avoid any potential international nuclear incident.
A Chinese assault initiated on 19 October 1950, under the command of General Peng Dehuai with 380,000 volunteers from the People’s Liberation Army of China, repelled the UN troops and took up the 38th parallel north, the border prior to the conflict. The Battle of the Chosin Reservoir in winter was a terrible defeat for the troops of the United Nations, composed primarily of United States Marines. The situation was such that MacArthur requested the use of atomic weapons, which became alarmed US allies.
The assault took China to the US troops by surprise, since it had been declared the war between the PRC and the United States. The withdrawal of the X Corps of the Army of the United States was the longest retreat a unit in American history. The Marines, on the east side of the peninsula, fled more organized, mainly due to their better training and discipline. On January 4, 1951, Communist forces in China and North Korea recaptured Seoul.
MacArthur was relieved of command by President Truman in 1951. The reasons for this decision were many and well documented. Among these was the meeting that MacArthur had with President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Chiang Kai-shek, playing the role of diplomat of the United States. MacArthur was also wrong to Guam when President Truman asked specifically about the strengthening of Chinese troops stationed near the Korean border. In addition, MacArthur openly demanded a nuclear attack on China. It was also rude and flippant when speaking to Truman. MacArthur was replaced by General Matthew Ridgway.
Panmunjeom border between South and North Korea in the demilitarized zone.
The rest of the war had only small changes of territory and long peace talks (which began at Kaesong on July 10 the same year). A ceasefire established a demilitarized zone around the 38th parallel north, which even today is defended by North Korean troops on one side and by the troops of South Korea and the United States for the other; did not sign a peace treaty. The new US President Dwight D. Eisenhower, elected on 29 November 1952, promised in his campaign to travel to Korea to see what could be done to end the conflict.