The Kurds are people of Indo-European origin, possibly a descendant of the Medes, who lives in the mountainous region of Kurdistan in south-west Asia. The Kurdish population is between 35 and 40 million people, divided mainly between Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. There are also Kurds in a geographic area more extensive, ranging from the Taurus Mountains to the western highlands of Iran, and from Mount Ararat to the foot of the hills adjacent to the Mesopotamian plains with significant enclaves in the eastern end of Syria and Armenia and the Autonomous Province of Najitxevan in Azerbaijan. There is also a significant Kurdish diaspora outside of Kurdistan, mainly in European countries such as Germany, the UK and Sweden.
The Kurdish people has dedicated traditionally nomadic livestock, crafts and culture, structured around a kind of tribal social organization still exists. Following the Islamization after the Arab conquest of 636 Kurdistan, the Kurds are mostly Sunni Muslims, although there is still a large group that preserve traditional Kurdish religion: the yazidisme.
Weakened by fragmentation between different states, the Kurds have suffered discrimination and persecution repeatedly. During the First World War the Kurds supported the allies against Turkey to achieve, through the Treaty of Sevres, independence from the Ottoman Empire. The agreement, however, was never ratified after the war took place harsh reprisals against Turkish Kurds.
Kurdish history is a very old history that could be traced back to four thousand years.
- 1 Kurdish history
- 2 Turkey and the Kurds
Around 2000 BC, the inscription appears on a country Kar-da-ka, near the “Your people.” This is believed Su was located south of Lake Van. A thousand years after Tiglath-Pileser I (1115-1076 BC) made war on the people in the mountains t-kur Azu (which could be Sasun).
Herodotus does not mention any name similar to Kurdish village. In Xenophon’s Anabasis are remarkable karducs east of Bohtan tive (Greek Kenitra) that do not recognize the authority of neither Armenia nor the Achaemenid king. We wanted to see in the karducs Khaldi or the descendants of the seventh century BC urartians expelled its inhabitants by Armenians in Lake Van; Others see in the Khaldi or Georgian Kartli. It has also proposed to identify with the Kurds living in cyrtii Media and Persia, mentioned by Strabo and other classics, they should emigrate to the west and mixed with the peoples of the Corduene. In the Armenian geography Corduene (Korcekh or kordjaiq) was the territory of the country’s Kurds.
In classical times the name appears repeatedly Corduene way to describe the territory to the left of the Tigris near the mountain Djudi. At this time three cantons have the Corduene own (Korduq), the CORDIC (Kordiq or Kordriq) and Tmoriq. The Syrians call Beth-Kardu region and Armenians Korduk; Arabs call as Bakarda or Karda. It seems then that its territory was limited. The only three towns were the Corduene Sareisa, and Pinakes Satalka (modern Finikia), near the Tigris.
Tigranes II of Armenia conquered Corduene verse 85 BC and the king was executed but Zarbienus local dynasty survive. 115 Manisarus was king. The Armenianization province was not very deep.
Muslim Arab period
At the time appears only Arab ethnic Kurd form (plural Akrad) designating a mixture of Iranian tribes or iranitzades and in the latter the native kardu (carducs), the tmoriq (tamuraye) with center Alqi (Elk) , the al-khuwaythiya with Khoit center near Sasun, the ortaye (al-Artan) to the curve of the Euphrates and some Semites and Armenians. This iranització found some evidence in social structures and physical presence.
The first contact with Arab Kurds occurred after Abd-Allah ibn al-Mutamm conquered Takrit and Hulwan (Persia) in 637. Sad ibn Abi Wakkas went to Mosul, where the districts inhabited by Kurds were occupied (Al Mardj, Nuhadhra Ba-Ba-Adhra, Hibtun, Dasin etc.). Iyab ibn Ghanum Utba and completed the conquest of the region. The 639 Susiana the Arabs fight against Kurds supported the Sassanid governor of Al-Ahwaz. The local zozan batrik was confirmed against payment of 640 kharadj. The 642 also supported the Persians in the defense of Fasa and Darabjird. 643 The Arabs occupied Xahrizur, and Darabadh Samghan. The 645 Kurds revolted in Berudh and Balasjan; Kurds were Islamized mass apostasy. In 685, after the conquest of Armenia and Azerbaijan, appointed governor Hulwan. The 702 Àixath the rebel Ibn al-allied Kurds Sabur of the headlights. The 708 Kurds were devastated and lighthouses were repressed. The 746 Kurds Sabur were against Sulayman, revolted against the caliph Marwan II and ally to kharigites; Marwan was the son of a slave who inherited the Kurdish blue eyes and the color of face.
There was a Kurdish uprising in Mosul; the first verse 770; the second 839 was directed by Jafar ibn Faharjís, after being defeated Babaghesh, retired in Jabal Dasin which defeated the troops of the Caliph, until a new army commanded by Turkish Aytakh quelled the rebellion lyon. The 845 was a Kurdish revolt in Isfahan, Jibal (Media) and Fars, liquidated by the Turkish General Wasif. 866 Kurds of Mosul joined the kharigita Musawi who had taken over the city. 875 participated in the revolt and the uprising zandj Yakub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar. Zanj support of a Kurdish chief, Muhammad ibn Ubayd-Allah ibn Hazarmad, attacked Susa, but was rejected by the militias of the caliph who were commanded by another Kurdish Ahmad ibn Laythuya; Yet he could occupy shushtar but instead read the khutba in the name of any of zandj, was read on behalf of the caliph and his rival Yakub al-Saffar; the zandjs of his army deserted and Laythuya-shushtar recovered; Muhammad held ramhormoz but was expelled by this time zandj. Muhammad negotiated again with zandj who sent new troops while fighting but were attacked treacherously, and Muhammad declared loyal to the caliph; the death of Yakub as-Saff (879) and the head of Zanj (883) put an end to these movements.
The 894 Kurds supported Hamdan ibn Hamdun, hamdànides of origin, which was established in Mosul. Kurdish revolt led by 897 Abu Layla did not last. The Kurds hadhbani 906, commanded by Muhammad ibn Bilal devastated Nineveh; Abd-Allah ibn pursued by Hamdan, now governor of Mosul, was defeated in this Matuba; received reinforcements and returned to attack the Kurds in the following year and the Kurds were withdrawn in Azerbaijan; attacked his final refuge lahijan had to be submitted at the same time the Kurdish Humaydi and the Djabal Dasin.
Around 937 head kharigita Deylaman ibn Ibrahim, the son of an Arab and a Kurd, who had met Kurdish troops (except for a contingent daylamita) seized in Azerbaijan and 938 expelled Laixkari ibn Mardi, general ziyàrida Washmgir. But musafàrida Marzuban well Muhammad (941-949), Shiite beliefs, seized shortly after expelling Azerbaijan Daysam; This took refuge with his friend Hadjik ibn Dayrani (King Gagik of Vaspurakan Khatshik 904-943 III, son of Derenik); it was not long when the city of Tabriz called Daysam revolted, but were defeated by musafírides agreed to their withdrawal Tarom. 949 Marzuban was taken prisoner by buwàyhida Rukn al-Dawla who sent a delegation to Azerbaijan.
Wahsudan well Muhammad Marzuban brother, used to Daysam that sent against buwàyhida Officer; although their Daysam ie Kurds were defeated, could retain Ardabil and Bardas. Marzuban was free and the 953 Daysam had to flee first to Baghdad and then to Armenia where he was welcomed with generosity Muizz al-Dawla. Hamdànides sought to recover the alliance of Azerbaijan and 955, taking advantage of the absence of Marzubam seized salmon where he read the khutba in the name of Sayf al-Dawla Aleppo. But Marzuban expelled and returned shortly after and had to take refuge in Vaspurakan with Derenik Ashot III (943-953 king) son of Gagik Khatshik III, who was forced to hand it to Marzuban who made a blind Daysam and died in prison 956.
During captivity Marzuban to Rayy (949-953) emerged independent governments in northwest Persia and among them Kurds: Kartu Muhammad ibn Shaddad, of the tribe Rawadi, whose main feuds were Dabil and Ganja. The 1072 Abu Sawara, xaddàdida dynasty, bought for his son Ani Manučihr and formed branches in Ganja and Ani; the latter was occupied by Georgians in 1124 but recovered in 1126; was lost back in 1161 but recovered again in 1165 and retained until 1174.
960 appeared in Azerbaijan pretending name Isa ibn Ishak who had the support of Fadl, head of the Kurds kahtani, while his rival musafírida Djastan ibn Marzuban (957-960) had the support of the Kurds hadhbani. Ishaq was defeated. The Kurds also had a role in the dipsutes Djastan of his brother Nasir al-Dawla and the Ibrahim ibn Marzuban (960-961 and 962-979) with his cousin Ismail Wahsudan well (960-961).
The 959 arose Jibal (Media) new Kurdish dynasty, founded by Hasan ibn Hasanuya Hasanwayh or tribe Barzikani. Dynasty were the hasanwàyhides.
978 Kurdish Ibn Badoya with the help of the Abu hamdànida Taghlib, became independent governor Ardamusth (Kawashi near Djabal Djudi) but was soon subjected to buwàyhida Adud al-Dawla. 979 The latter made two expeditions against Kurds who were Xahrizur Bedouin allies Banu Xayban (commercial and matrimonial alliances); Xahrizur was occupied and Bedouins returned to the desert. Another expedition was made against 980 Kurdish Hakkari who surrendered in exchange for saving the life but after surrender were crucified and exposed to the route between Malatya and Mosul.
The head Badha Kurdish became famous still life Adud the Dawla (+ 983). Gradually seized Ardjish, Amida and Mayyafarikin. For a revolt in nasib faced Samsan al-Dawla what defeated Lo-Djulaiya the banks of the Khabur, the canton of Kawashi (Ardamusht) and seized Mosul; was determined to march on Baghdad to settle the buwàyhides when he was defeated by the forces of Samsan al-Dawla and had to retreat to Mayyafarikin; a pact with the commander of the army sent against him secured possession of Diyarbekir and the western part of Tur Abdin (984). 990 having gathered a large number of Kurds appeared before Mosul but were hamdànides ensure the support of Arab Banu Uqayl. Badha died in combat.
After 990 Samsan al-Dawla to regain its position as buwàyhida, allied to Fulad ibn Mundhir, head of the Kurdish cavalry Xiraz. When failing fled but betrayed the Kurds took refuge with Fakhr al-Dawla.
The Kurds emphasized in several places. Between 976 and 998 Kurdish riders took part in the fights between buwàyhides ziyàrides and for possession of Gurgan. Ahmad al-Kurd Dahhak defeated and killed a Byzantine general sent by Basil II and stopped the progression of the Greeks. Mahmud of Ghazni was used against the Kurds karakhànides. They also participated in the internal struggles of buwàyhides at Banu Uqayl for possession of Mosul and other conflicts. 1020 were against Turkish troops rebellion in Hamadan. Around 1028-1029 participated in operations in Fars and Khuzestan Abu Kalidjar.
Marwànida Dynasty (Diyarbakir) arose from Badha. His nephew (son of a sister) Abu Ali ibn Marwan ibn Dustak pulled 990 at Hisn Kayf where he lived the wife of daylamita Badha. They married and seized one by one all the castles that had been in Badha. Twice made prisoner hamdànida Abu Abd Allah, who had caused the final defeat Badha but treated generously. It was established in Diyarbekir was Günay and support of the people for his conciliatory style. The dynasty ruled from 990 to 1096 and dominating the Diyarbekir ahlat, Melazgerd, Ardjish and northeast of Lake Van coming temporarily to the west and south Urfa Abu Ali seized the 991 was in the hands of Syria the Byzantines. Abu Ali died in 997 at the hands of the rebels Diyarbekir and was succeeded by his brother Abu Mansur al-Dawla Muhammhid governor Mayyafarikin until 1011. He followed his brother Abu Nasr Ahmad (1011-1061) that occupied Urfa in 1025 but regained the Byzantines in 1031; 1050 was a tribute to Sultan Toghril I. Beg’s successor Abu Nasr was his son Abu’l-Kasim Nizam Nasr al-Dawla (1061-1080) who share power with his brother Said (died 1065) and that annexed Harran, Suwayda and other possessions. The next ruler was mansus ibn Said (1080-1096; from 1085 Seljuk General Fakhr al-Dawla Ibn Djahir occupied almost all of his domains were agragada the government Atabeg Mosul.
The Kurds who served with Ghaznavid left fighting oghuzz, who had approached Rayy when his head was taken prisoner; General Ghaznavid Tash Farrash died devoid of this aid (1029). The same year ghuzz many Kurds killed in Maragha hadbhani; Kurds allied to the government of Azerbaijan, Wahsudan II and together they could reject the invaders. The 1041 musafírida Wahsudan II ibn Mamlan did kill thousands of ghuzz Tabriz; ghuzz the region of Urmia moved towards Hakkari (city) (dependency Mosul) and devastated the mountain region but Kurds were ambushed and defeated. After underwent Tughril the al-guided zozan to Djazira. Part of oghuzz (led by Mansur ibn Ghozughli) stayed in the east and the rest under Djazira Boka Bogha or advanced on the Diyarbekir and sacked Kardu, and Bazabda Husayniyya (between Mosul and Fayshabur). The marwànida Sulayman ibn Nasr al-Dawla, the governor of Djazira agreed with ghuzz in spring next step and when he arrived in Syria at the time, grabbed Mansur treason and with the help of the Kurds bashnawi Finiki was ghuzz the chase, but these ravaged the occupied Mosul and Diyarbekir.
While the Djibal hasanwàyhides had given way to annàzides. 1015 Abu l-Shawkat killed last hasanwàyhida Zahir. The annàzides dominated Xahrizur, Kermanshah, Bilawar, Samghan, Dakuka, Kuftidhakan and others. Toghril Beg sent his brother Ibrahim Inal to Djibal; Ibrahim was expelled from Hamadan to kakúyida Garshasp who took refuge with Kurds djuzkan. Sami Ibrahim Inal occupied (or Saymanara Sham?) And subjecting djuzkan. Sadi, the son of Abu-Shawki was submitted to the Seljuks. Annàzida The dynasty lasted until 1116.
The Seljuks were eliminated Kurdish dynasties (marwànides, annàzides); xabanqara the Lighthouse (1031-1355) were not properly Kurds. Under Sandjar formed a province named Kurdistan in the western part of Djibal. The residents of the province were atabeg Kurdistan Mosul; Atabeg Kurdish Zengi invaded the territory in 1134 and occupied the left bank of the Tanzanian Bokhtan in revenge for the Kurds humaydi had supported the caliph al-Mústarxid when besieged Mosul and seized several strengths as Akr, Shush and others. Abu l-Haydja, lord of Arbil, underwent Zengi; the death of Abu l-Haydja, Zengi seized Ashib Djalab strong and took the name Imadiyya (soon deformed Amadiyya) in his honor (Zengi wearing lakab of Imad al-Din). 1139 Zengi occupied Xahrizur Turkmen Kifdjak ibn Arslan Tash; the Kurdish Hakkari in 1142 attacked and occupied al-Shabani (unidentified fortress) and the following year Khizan and Irun. Ali, Mr. Al-Rabiya, Farah and Alka (probably KLA) was submitted voluntarily Zengi. The last expedition was Zengi against the Kurds against bashnawi of Fanak (Finiki) that was assentjant when Zengi died. Later, after the death of Saladin (1193) the zengites consolidated its position in central Kurdistan. 1218 occupied the fortress Imadiyya and other strengths of Hakkari and zozan that were donated by Muzaffar al-Din Kökburi of Erbil.
The ortúquides of Diyarbekir have also conflict with the Kurds occasionally. 1185 under the caliph an-Nasser exploded a war between Turks and Turkmens that spread to several regions but fighting ended after two years to fight the Christians of Armenia, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Syria and Cappadocia but later Kurds and Turkmens were again fighting the Kurds and in the end had to withdraw towards Cilicia and almost all Kurdish region and Syria were eliminated. Christians hid kept the Kurds and Turkmen properties and also attacked Christians in Thelmuzen (not identitificada) and Aranthil (Arabgir?).
The Ayyubid dynasty was of Kurdish origin. This ethnic group were largely of troops and administrative apparatus.
Khwarizmshah at the time of the Kurds in 1217 of the Zagros defeated these troops sent to Baghdad to Hamadan. Operations Manguberti Djalal al-Din (1226-1229) was against ahlat desorgnitzar the region and Kurds were decimated by hunger. Pursued by the Mongols, Djalal al-Din took refuge with Kurds in Diyarbekir in 1231 and was killed by a Kurd. The Mongols devastated Diyarbekir and then ahlat. Khwarizmshah forces organized gangs ravaged several regions in 1237 and devastated the region Kharput. In 1245 a Mongol horde descended from Maragha in Arbil that was attacked three times; 1245 Xahrizur was devastated and 1252 Diyarbekir.
Under the Il-Khans Kurdistan province had capital Bahar near Hamadan. Malik ibn Tudan, father of Amir Coban, who was dominated province. 1257 Hulagu leave Hamadan to Baghdad by road to Kermanshah, were massacres and lootings. In Arbil ruled Tadj Salabat-Din, which was submitted to Mongol garrison Kurdish but did not want to surrender Arbil was conquered and massacred the Kurds. Badr al-Din Lulu, atabeg of Mosul helped the Mongol conquest. The conquest of Baghdad (1258) led to the depopulation of Xahrizur the inhabitants of which emigrated to Syria and Egypt (two Kurdish tribes ended in Algeria). Back in Azerbaijan, Hulagu attacked the country Hakkari where he massacred the Kurds; followed Djazira, Diyarbakir (Amida) Mayyafarikin (aiúbida dominated by al-Malik al-Kamil Nasir al-Din) and Mardin. Lulu Mosul died and his son Salih went to the side of the Egyptian Mamluks; Mosul garrison, consisting mainly Kurds and Turkmen, resisted the attack Mongolian occupied by a stratagem.
1335 and the Sulduz Djalairs (Mongol both) disputed power. 1338 partition between the two Hasan (or the Great and Small or Kuchuk Buzurg), the Persian province of Kurdistan and Khuzestan went to the children of the Emir and Akrandj Akrash. Around 1383 djalayàrida Bayazid was then create a special Persian Kurdistan and Iraq Adjemi.
Kurdish tribes towards 1300-1500
Kusa and Mabira (expatriates in Syria and Egypt)
Tribe nearly 700 men Karhin (Kirkuk?) And Dakuk, nomd esconegut
Tribal region of Arbil, name unknown
Tribe region Markawan (Margawar), name unknown
Tribe region Gawar name unknown
Tribe region Zibari, name unknown
The Kara Koyunlu and Aq Qoyunlu dominated the heart of Kurdistan. Kara Yusuf Timur’s death in 1405 he received the hand of the daughter of Shams al-Din of Bidlo and with their help he recovered his power. The princes Bidlo Kurds had the protection of Kara Koyunlu. The aq Qoyunlu made a policy of systematic extermination of the Kurds. Annexed Hakkari (which happened at a time Dumbuli). In 1470 all the Djazira was in the hands of Aq Qoyunlu who was appointed governor in Calabria Beg. General Sulayman ibn Bizana Bidlo expelled Kurdish prince Ibrahim Khan who later was executed by order of Yakub son of Uzun Hasan.
The Safavid followed a policy antikurda that they were Shiites. When eleven main Kurdish leaders were present to pay homage to Khoy to Ismail of Persia, were imprisoned and appointed governors kizilbaixis. For three centuries Kurdistan was the theater of the struggle between the Ottoman and Safavid; Boilers battle in 1514 prevented the Persians never again dominate far had it briefly before this battle.
Kurdish groups seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Princes Djazira (Umayyad claimed descent). They were divided into three branches.
Governors Khizan, Isbayerd (Sparhet or Ispert) and Muks (Mukus)
Governors Suwayda (barmàquida claimed descent).
Governors Çemişgezek (Abbasid claimed descent).
Prince of Azrak
Governors of Kilis
Ustun of Governors (first dynasty Shamdinan)
Tribe Zarza tribe Tarzi (could be the same)
Prince of Amadiyya
Tribe Dasini or Tasini
Tribe Wales Baghi
Princes and Darna Dartang
After Calder much of Kurdistan was by the Ottomans; Selim ordered the organization to Idris, a historian of Kurdish Bidlo that divided the territory and sandjaks nahiyes (districts) but trying not to interfere in the system of hereditary princes who ruled between Kurdish leaders, who happened to be from the point of view of Ottoman governors hereditary. Many Kurds were established in the area between Erzerum and Erivan had devastated and depopulated part-time Tamerlane.
The 1639 peace treaty limited the Persian expansion westward and the Ottoman Empire was able to reclaim the western regions and Transcaucasia. Nearly all Kurds were in the Ottoman Turkish. Around 1640 Malak Ahmad Pasha (since 1638 governor of Diyarbekir) made an expedition against the Yazidis in Sindjar. Firari Ottoman forces commanded by Mustafa Pasha attacked the Kurdish Yazidis Mount Sindjar (SACL Dagi); according Ewliya Çelebi, the Ottomans were 40,000 and the battle lasted seven hours and at the end of 3060 Yazidis were killed and the next day the Turkish army devastated 300 villages Yazidis; between two thousand thousand Yazidis took refuge in caves near Sindjar but also by the Ottomans were attacked with guns and bombs and slaughtered anyway.
1640 1736 Ottoman Kurdistan was formed as before, but now in greater numbers, a series of autonomous Kurdish principalities. In 1655 the old Malak Ahmad Pasha Pasha of Diyarbekir, now transferred to the government of Van, tried to subdue the Kurds in the region. Abdal Khan, Kurdish rozigi of Bidlo formed an army to resist and Ewliya Celebi says many Yezidis fought at his side. The Ottoman forces marched against Bidlo and committed atrocities against civilians when they pass through lands rozigi tribe; Abdal Khan built strongholds pedrea Bidlo and around the old city walls were defended by a large contingent of children Kurds armed with muskets; Ottomans attacked the perimeter defense and defeated the Kurds and entered Bidlo attacking civilians; when the Ottomans were already established in Bidlo, Abdal Khan organized an assassination attempt Malek Ahmad Pasha, was unsuccessful: a unit of 20 Kurdish soldiers came to the store Kethuda Yusuf, the second commander, and delivered a fierce battle with his guards; 1400 Kurds resisted the citadel of Bidlo; some surrendered and obtained amnesty and 300 who resisted were massacred whose dismembered 70.
1666 a son of a Kurdish sheikh, was declared Mahdi but was taken prisoner by the governors of Mosul and Imadiyya (or Amadiyya); ended the service personnel Mehmed IV. 1719 Kurds of Persia besieged Hamadan and Isfahan reach. A Kurdish any name or Fandun Feridun was sent Tahmasp II Isfajhan against Afghans who had occupied, but was rejected and ended up submitting to the Ottomans. The Prince of Ardalan, one of the few Kurdish authority under Persian underwent Hasan Pasha also being followed by the lords of Djawanrud, Darna, DJAFER, Harsin and finally by Ali Mardan fayl sipahsalar, who had retreated to Luristan.
The Afghans defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Andjidan (1726); Turkish troops were about 20,000 Kurds in orders Oghlu Sulayman (Sulayman Baban?) and Kurds were blamed for the defeat seems to Ashraf the Afghan had made promises. 1727 Ashraf had to yield to the Ottomans throughout western Persia, including every district Kurds and Lurs. 1732 Persian regained the western provinces. After constant fights in the peace treaty of 1736 restored the borders of 1639. Nadir Shah replaced Werder Subhan Khan Ardalan head of provoking a revolt. The Greater Khorasan Kurds revolted and Nadir also died when he was going to punish them (1747).
After the reforms in 1736 changed the status of hereditary princes but the system continued in fact almost untouched to the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 as the Kurds took advantage of the decline of the Ottoman dynasty, the distance of the capital and the lack of accessibility of their land. Kurdish power was extended to the west to Ankara. Moreover Zand dynasty ruled Persia who was Kurdish (1750-1794). The dynasty ended in 1794. The use Zand Kurds.
In 1813 he came to the throne in Soran (Rawandoz) south of Bahdinan, Mir Muhammad Pasha. He sotemtre dissidents of his family and annexed some small neighboring emirates and in 1816 created a Sardara Council adopted a flag that was divided horizontally rectangular black and white. 1818 was proclaimed independent. 1820 Badr Khan came to the throne of the principality of Bohtan-Cizre, near the site where the modern Syrian border, Iraqi and Turkish. To consolidate his power attacked Christian villages Nestorians who had his domain to the east, killing and looting. Under a claim of the European powers, the Porte sent a military expedition that was defeated; then Badr Khan proclaimed independent. A second expedition in 1825 was defeated and took prisoner being sent to Crete. At this time the Turks were trying to impose direct rule and the first charge of this task was Rashid Mehmed Pasha, governor of Sivas. Their actions caused the great Kurdish rebellion led by Mir Muhammad Badr-Khan of Bohtan Cirze Said Beg, Beg and Muhammad Ismail Pasha Rawandoz (which came to declare their independent domains around 1820 ).
In 1831 Mir Muhammad Pasha Rawandoz held Arbil and other places in 1832 and extended its power in Mosul, following Akra, Zibari and Amadiyya. 1833 entered into Djazira Zakho and where to restore Badr Khan. The Yazidis were punished and the head of the sect, Ali, who refused to convert to Islam, was executed. Rashid garrisons in major cities and several Kurdish Kurdish princes were replaced by simple Ottoman governors. In 1836 the Emir of Rawandoz was captured by deceit and died hanged; repression lasted for a while yet. The revolt Nur Allah Beg of Hakkari and Badr Khan (Turkish Bedirhan) Djazira of 1843; Holy League was formed with the Kurdish emirs of Hakkari, Djazira, Hizán, Mush and others and proclaimed independence of Kurdistan ka hoisting up the flag for many years would be the national Kurdish: green red disc in the center including a crescent white tips to the flight; Green represented the religion, the red blood and the growing Kurdish independence with the support of Allah. The revolt was firmly repressed being defeated in several clashes in 1847 by a Turkish army having to leave Kurdistan.
Kurds States around 1835
The 1821 Persian Qajar invaded Ottoman territory because of difficulties with the Turks, came to Bidlo and Mush, but the peace of Erzurum 1823 restored the borders of 1639; Yet the Persians did not want to evacuate Zohab district, populated with Kurds; 1842 would explode a new war which was averted by mediation of Russia and Great Britain in 1847 and a new treaty in Erzurum established that Zohab be divided between the two parties but abandon all pretense of Persia Sulaimaniyya.
Kurdistan had an ephemeral existence as administrative entity for 17 years, between 13 December 1847 (eliminated revolt Badr Khan) and the 1864 initiative of Koca Mustafa Resit Pasha during the Tanzimat (1839 to 1876). Eyal’s capital was initially ahlat (Turkish Ahlat) and included Diyarbekir, Muş, Van, Hakkari, Cizre, Mardin and Botana. In the following years the capital was changed several times Ahlat to Van, Muş and then finally to Diyarbakır. The eyalet area was reduced in 1856 and surpimit administrative reform of 1864, being restored ancient provinces of Van and Diyarbekir. The Crimean War helped the Ottomans to strengthen his power in Kurdistan. In 1829 the Russians had first created a Kurdish regiment to which they added two more during the Crimean War. At the same time there was a revolt led by a popular Bohtan Yazdani-Shehri, nephew and former rival Badr Khan, who used the same Kurdish flag; the revolt was suppressed and Kurds were deported to Lebanon but right to flame the flag merchant vessels.
The children of the latter led a revolt Kurdish Hakkari, Bahdinan Bohtan and 1878; this revolt linked to the movement of Sheikh Ubayd Allah nakshbandiyya that sought an autonomous Kurdistan under Ottoman sovereignty. Kurdish rebels ravaged regions of Lake Urmia, Maragha and other threatened and even Tabriz. Persia mobilized enormous amounts of troops and Turkey remained neutral and finally Sheikh Shamdinan returned to where he was sent to Constantinople; could flee and return to Shamdinan but captured again in 1883 finally ended up dying in Mecca. The rebels used the Kurdish flag was finally banned in 1880.
Shakir Pasha in 1891 conceived the idea of forming Cossack regiments Kurds imitation to link them to the Turkish state. The regiments were told hamdiyye and did not have much success. In subsequent years there were some conflicts between Kurds and Armenians until then good neighbors; 1894 was the most serious conflict in Sasun, which caused devastation in a region. In 1895 the Turks Hakkari revolted but were then subjected. Armeno-Kurdish relations were discreet until the First World War.
At the beginning of the twentieth century Pasha ibn Mahmud ibn Ibrahim ibn Ayyub Timawi, head of the Milli tribe (Milan) in the region of Shariweran (between Diyarbakir and Aleppo), had created a situation of virtual independence. In proclaiming the creation of openly revolted in 1908 and retired to the mountains where he was killed in a battle. Meanwhile the government had occupied Ottoman (1905) disputed districts in the region of Lake Urmia inhabited by Kurds; when the Balkan War in 1912 forced the Ottomans to withdraw arrived in Khoy and Urmiya Russian troops and Kurdish descendants of noble families went to Russia. On 17 November 1913 a boundary treaty was signed in Constantinople before the start of World War quadripartite commission (Ottoman, Persian, British and Russians) managed to demarcate the border on the ground that generally restored the previous stato quo.
End of World War I
Terms of the Treaty of Sevres for an independent Kurdistan (1920)
In 1917 and 1918 began to form committees Kurds everywhere. In Paris Sharif Pasha reached the representation of Kurds and 22 March 1919 and 1 March 1920 presented the Kurdish claims. At the same time understand the Armenian representatives (20 December 1919) which made a joint declaration on the peace conference. The Treaty of Sevres of August 10, 1920 Armenia was created (known as Great Armenia join the Russian Armenia) in the regions of Trabzon, Erzerum, Van Bidlo and establishing local autonomy in predominantly Kurdish areas. A Kurdistan Indep statement was conditioned by Turkey but the majority of the population in the regions assigned is favorable to independence; Kurds of Mosul could voluntarily adhere to this condition. Due to the evolution posrterior there was no place to exercise the right of self-determination and the Kurdistan was canceled by the Treaty of Lausanne of 24 June 1923; After the situation was limited to discuss the fate of the Kurds of Mosul. The Turks defended the thesis that Turks and Kurds are identical except for the language. The Mosul Vilayat dispute was finally awarded the Council of the League of Nations in Iraq (16 December 1925), but with a clause leaving aside the Kurds’ right to decide their will, have officials all fields that were Kurds and Kurdish were official.
Turkey and the Kurds
In 1924 revolted Sheikh Said Piran Nakhshbandi regions of Urfa, Severek and Diyarbekir. His rebellion had a strong religious component. Soon Sheikh was captured and hanged 53 men in Diyarbekir (June 1925). The Turks insisted that a Kurdish nationalist uprising as if this were something bad while Turkish nationalist uprising had triumphed was good. Many involved a Kurdish rebellion had to flee abroad.
On 3 October 1927 formed the National League Kurdish Hoyboun (Independence) for the merger of all former committees and Ihsan Nuri Pasha was appointed general Bidlo supreme. They held talks with the Turks in 1928 Shaykli Köprü. He offered amnesty but the Kurds that were received were executed. Then began the revolt called Agri Dagh (Mount Ararat) with the establishment of a Kurdish republic known as the Republic of Ararat. Well organized and directed the Kurds won spectacular victories, but eventually defeated by the superiority in weapons (artillery and aviation Kurds were not) and men (45 000 Turkish soldiers against 5,000 Kurds) from the Turks. Turkish law May 5, 1932 organized the deportation of Kurds (from 1934). The Kurdish nation was legally suppressed Kurds and Turks became mountains.
In 1937 there was a new Kurdish revolt led by Sayyid Rida sheikh of nakshbandites. The crackdown was an extreme savagery; Sheikh and 10 of his colleagues were executed (15 November 1937). The name of Dersim was deleted and replaced by Tunceli. The region remained under martial law until 1946.
The repression against the Kurdish language and culture was more or less violent according regimes but never stopped. In 1967 it was illegal to bring a book, magazine, disk, etc. in the Kurdish language from abroad. Turkish nationalists do not stop violent writings against the Kurds. The protests are useless and courts consisting Turks cooperated closely with the Turkish nationalists. In recent years, demands for the European Union, repression is slightly attenuated but Kurdish is still not recognized paridos the Kurds have no legal existence and when they do not like ethnic parties are dissolved in a few months MPs are imprisoned Kurds, and Kurdish activists who indulge extrajudicial are locked in jail in subhuman conditions. Although Europe’s oldest political prisoner is Basque (takes 31 years) it is possible that in the future some Kurds sentenced to life imprisonment to surpass this number if you survive the bad hygienic conditions and treatment in prisons.
In December 1918 the British occupied Iraq settled (greater Noel) Sheikh Mahmud Barzanji Sulayman (1880-1956) and governor (hukumdar) territories between Kurds Great Zab and Diyala. At the end of May 1919, Mahmoud proclaimed the independence of Kurdistan. Mahmud was captured by the British and sentenced to death but the sentence was commuted and he sent into exile in India. At this time several British officers were killed in Zakho, and Akra Amadiyya.
Most Soane took place in the government of Mahmud and restore calm, but on August 23, 1921 in Baghdad was installed as King Faisal I, king of Syria but previously expelled from Damascus by the French, and announced its intention to join Iraq Mosul Vilayat claimed that the Turks and the Kurds want as the national state recognized by the Treaty of Sevres of August 10, 1920. The agitation escalated and Turks threatened Mosul Vilayat; Mahmud returned from exile with British approval on 1 September 1922 and formed a government on 1 October 1922 and proclaimed himself king of Kurdistan (8 November 1922), issuing stamps, raising taxes and publishing a newspaper (Roj-Kurdistan and the Kurdistan = Sun). On 24 December 1922 the British and Iraq recognize the right of the Kurdish people to establish within the borders of Iraq, a Kurdish national government. Again was used traditional Kurdish flag in place since 1843 and the Royal Standard, which was the same flag with a royal crown.
Difficulties caused the subsequent British bombing Mahmud forcing him to take refuge in Sardash (3 March 1923). The British entered Sulaymaniyah (16 May 1923) but had to leave on June 17 next, and Mahmud returned to dominate the 11 July 1923. Finally, Iraqi forces occupied the city 19 July 1924. Mahmud in his mountain retreat in Sardash published a new paper (Bang-i Haq = The call to the Truth) and remained in that position until 1930, when he finished in fact the British mandate.
The Iraqi government began to withdraw Kurdish officials to put Arabs abolished the teaching of the Kurdish language in the Kurdish regions, and other measures, including the outbreak of the revolt in general during a demonstration in Sulaymaniyah when Arab soldiers fired on Kurdish civilians (6 September 1930). Mahmud took the direction of the movement and the Iraqi army could not master the situation (September 1930 to April 1931) and requested assistance sent British Royal Air Force aircraft. Mahmud was captured and sent to house arrest in Baghdad.
In 1931, Sheikh Ahmad Barzani started a dispute with a neighbor Sheikh and clashes also necessitated the intervention of the RAF. In 1933-1934 there was a new Kurdish uprising led by Barzani and his brother Ahmad Molla Mustafa Barzani, which were placed under house arrest in Kirkuk and Sulaymaniyah then. In 1941, during the coup officers Plaza Dorada (German pro) that led to the government as prime minister Rashid Ali Gaylani (April 3), the exrei Mahmud took the opportunity to escape from Baghdad Kurdish troops and tried to get up in favor of the British arranged the situation but stopped.
1943 Molla Mustafa Barzani saw the bad social situation of hunger and necessity of his people, escaped from Sulaymaniyah to Barzan, accompanied by Sheikh Latif, son of Mahmud, and proclaimed the revolt. An Iraqi Kurdish government, Mustafa Madjid (state minister) could appease the spirits and Barzani underwent change supply districts Kurds, the restoration of civil Kurdish sections and the opening of schools and hospitals in Kurdistan. Nuri Said, Iraqi Prime Minister agreed conditions (including which provided a unique province for all Kurdish territories) but were never implemented by the refusal of the regent Abd al-Ilah and spring 1945 uprising resumed this time stronger than before. The Kurds got some spectacular victories and the Iraqi army was humiliated again had to intervene RAF. At the end of August, after heavy shelling, the revolt ended. Molla Mustafa was back to Iran where he was a key instrument in the republic of Mahabad. Four of the officers who believed the promise of amnesty from the government and were given, were executed on 19 June 1947. Kurdish nationalists went into hiding nearly the same time that Iran, accompanying to which Turkey had done before. Then he founded the Democratic Party of Kurdistan and published two newsletters: Azadi (Freedom) and Rizgari (Liberation). The party was progressive and guidance at the end of 1946 called for a union Armenian Kurdish. In the following years Sulaymaniyah was a focus of Kurdish culture.
On 14 July 1958 proclaimed the republic in Iraq. The Kurds had participated in the overthrow of the regime and the interim constitution proclaimed that Arabs and Kurds were partners in the nation; national rights were guaranteed in the Iraqi state. Gen. Abd al-Karim Kasim rehabilitated officers executed in 1947 and authorized the return of Mustafa Barzani who had taken refuge in the Soviet Union (2 September 1958), being very well received on 7 October 1958 . Other companions returned from exile in April 1959. Mustafa received a house and a bodyguard in Baghdad and was the adviser Kasim for some time. The Kurdistan Democratic Party, became de facto legal, then the newspaper published Xebat (the fight), and others followed in the Kurdish language.
When the situation cooled and the regime did not fulfill the promises, the Kurds revolted on 9 September 1961, a national revolution of all social classes; the answer was the blockade, bombing, including massive napalm, burning villages and crops, killing women, old and young; still in March 1962 Kurds already dominated all the north of Iraq except in big cities where there were government forces, which were virtually besieged. The losses of the army to make war unpopular; soldiers deserted; the economy collapsed. They organized a coup and Kurds were informed; On 8 February 1968 Kasim was overthrown and killed. On 9 February the Kurds declare ceasefire. The Baath Party took power. When the Kurds demanded the fulfillment of the agreements, the issue was delayed; Talks began and 24 April 1963 the Kurds presented the memorandum requests; when the Baathist government was established imprisoned Kurdish MPs and issued an ultimatum to surrender on 10 June 1963 and the same day without waiting for an answer, started operations with increased violence. As these months Baas also had seized power in Damascus, the Syrians helped the Baathist Iraqi aircraft and Yarmuk brigade; Kurds took them several ambushes to eliminate this and other, occupied military posts and convoys of weapons and made hundreds of prisoners. The Iraqi army was defeated and humiliated, gave way to the National Guard, created by Baathists and specialized in particular atrocities against the Communists. A new coup separated from power Baas and gave power to General Abd al-Salam Aref (18 November 1963) but military action continued. The Kurds call the Red Cross and the Pope were not heard.
On February 10, 1964 Marshal Aref negotiated a ceasefire Barzani agreed without consulting the political bureau of the party. Thanks to Western journalists Kurds were announced to the world his suffering and the real situation and taking advantage of the truce could supply food and weapons. The government let time pass without doing anything, hoping that the Kurds would not want to resume the war, but in October 1964, once passed a more than reasonable, the Kurds decided to organize its internal autonomy. Appointed administrative officials at all levels, were charged taxes, created courts and carefully trained their troops to that fitted best. They celebrated the VI Congress of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (1 to 7 July 1964), the meeting of the General Staff of the Revolution (9 to 10 October 1964) and was proclaimed a constitution (17 October 1964). But the party did not agree with the ceasefire and accused Barzani of betraying the purpose of the movement; There was even a confrontation with blood Mawat between supporters of Barzani and other party leaders (July 17). The Sixth Party Congress expelled 14 of the 17 Politburo members including Ibrahim Ahmad and Jalal Talabani, all of whom took refuge in Iran.
On 10 May 1964 the Iraqi government explicitly recognized the Kurdish national rights established by the interim constitution of 1958, but that only the Kurds were not disarmed. On 4 March 1965 the government started the spring offensive with all the forces (artillery, infantry, aviation, armor, under the command of General Abd al-Rahman Aref, the president’s brother, and although it took between March and May some local successes under after (June to September) was bogged down in bloody battles chain Safin, the Iraqis used poison gas, the village was occupied Pendjwin after a heavy use of artillery destroyed . The Iraqis even have had help from Egypt, suffered many casualties (4194 killed, 2201 injured, destroyed 12 tanks and aircraft killed five). A new military campaign in the winter (December 22, 1965 to end of February 1966) gave new bloody fighting. On 1 January 1966 Barzani sent a memorandum to the UN no answer.
On 13 April 1966 Marshal Aref died in a helicopter crash and was succeeded by his brother Abd al-Rahman Aref. The day began a new offensive (April 13 to June 15) which was the main battle of Rawandoz or Hendra called “the Kurdish Verdun” that Iraqis were defeated despite the use of all means and napalm, losing 1056 men (and 476 wounded) and also 600 mercenaries called “Knights of Saladin” were destroyed, while the Kurds had only 38 dead and 85 wounded. The government declared victory on June 15 but requested a ceasefire signed Prime Minister Bazzaz (+ 1973) on 29 June 1966. A secret clauses recognizing the autonomy of the Kurds. President Aref visited Kurdistan and met with Barzani (October 28) because the Iraqi staff opposed it and wanted to ask Bazzaz sales. Again time passed without any action.
The Six-Day War with Israel (5 to 11 June 1967) had its effect in several Arab countries. On 17 July 1967 a coup deposed in Baghdad and Aref had the power to General Hassan al-Bakr; a second time on July 30, 1968 al-Bakr snatched all executive powers and restore Baathist dictatorship and the National Guard. while the Kurdish de facto autonomous, made great efforts in education and health care, opening 300 schools in 1968. But the government flirting with Kurdish dissidents created an Arab university in Sulaymaniyah and a new Liwa (province) of Duhok, and preparing a new confrontation.
In April 1969 hostilities began in Khoy-Sandzak; Iraqis were expelled from Kala-Diza, and Čwarta Pendjwin and could only attack the civilian population in the plains of Arbil, and Halabdja Bahdinan pulling napalsm and sulfuric acid to crops. July 17 was declared cholera-Diza Kila. In August there was a massacre in the region of Dakan Shaykhan. In January 1970 it was clear that the offensive was Iraqi save made since September and indeed since December and gave the number of 151 aircraft shot down in six months. So in January the Baath began talks with Barzani; Kurdish delegation headed by Mahmud Uthman went to Baghdad and 11 March 1970 reached an agreement which was signed on 15 points Nawperdan (Kurdistan) that ended the war and agree on internal autonomy in Kurdistan vice president of the republic; Kurdish language became the second official language of Iraq; five Kurds were appointed ministers and declared a general amnesty for the events, affecting both sides.
The situation improved for a while, but on September 29, 1971 Molla Mustafa Barzani was subject to an attack that failed; in summer 1972 there were riots in Sindjar; and the issue of Kirkuk poisoned relations: the extent of the territory affected by the autonomy was postponed to a census done. As surely would have been a Kurdish majority in Kirkuk, the oil fields nearby and the area of high oil Khanaqin south of Sulaymaniyah (Kurdish: Sîlemanî) the census was delayed. On 14 June 1972 the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) was nationalized. The head Molla Mustafa Barzani Kurdish formally claimed Kirkuk and oil fields in 1973 and this was considered by the Iraqi government as a declaration of war and in March 1974 the government declared a unilateral diminished autonomy and Kurdish rights exclude specifically Kirkuk and its region (setting limits according to the census of 1957 when the Kurds could not be declared as such for fear of reprisal) as well as the fields of Khanaqin and Shingal / Sindjar. The Iraqi regime was both an administrative reform in the sixteen provinces (governorates) changed the name of the country and in some cases their limits. The former governor of Kirkuk was divided into two, the area around the town was named governor of al-Tamim (التأميم “nationalization”) and its boundaries altered for the Arab majority. The Iraqi government systematically expelled Kurds (about 500,000 Kurds seconds) and Assyrians from Kirkuk and other towns in the region. Supported the Turkmen government. The Kurds had migrated to the northern provinces and its place in the Arab envoys were called Arabization process (taarib) as above. When the 1977 census was planned in 1970, the agreement of autonomy was already dead.
In 1972, the bassists had signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation with the Soviet Union in 1974 and resumed the war against the Kurds. In March 1975, Iran and Iraq signed the Algiers Agreement, which in exchange for certain rights in the Shatt al-Arab and other border points, Iran stopped supplying materials to the Iraqi Kurds. Without military support Barzani had to retire in Iraq with his followers; others surrendered en masse to the army and the Kurdish revolt ended in a few days. After 15 years he returned to control Iraq’s Kurdistan. Iraq then began a program of Arabization (taarib) who drove from his home at least two hundred thousand Kurds between 1975 and 1978. Clashes between peixmergues (militiamen) resistant and the army resumed in 1977. Between 1978 and 1979 some 600 Kurdish villages were burned or destroyed.
The Iran-Iraq war began in 1980; measures against the Kurds again ignited the civil war in Kurdistan. Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons since 1982. The campaign called al-Anfal was a systematic genocide of the Kurds. The second wave began on 29 March 1987 and lasted until April 1989. The Iraqis destroyed many villages, and made several massacres, the most famous killing of Halabdja chemicals (16- March 17, 1988 with 5000 dead and 11000 wounded). The total civilian deaths to the effects of chemical weapons were thousands (50,000). The city of Kala-Qala Diza or Dizeh (70,000) was totally destroyed by the Iraqi army. According Kurds total deaths in all the campaigns were more than 182,000.
The Iraqi government launched a legislative assembly of the autonomous Kurdistan with Erbil as the capital with the provinces of Erbil, Dahuk and Sulaymaniyah. Because Iraq was virtually a one-party state system, the meeting was a reflection of that party; Kurdish authority was appointed by Baghdad and the multi party system had no effect either in Kurdistan. At the end of the first Gulf War in 1991, the Kurds revolted again. After a series of continuous military successes including the conquest of Kirkuk, Iraqi counterattack all media drove out Kurds who had occupied cities and caused an exodus of 800,000 Kurds to the mountains; the extreme situation of these refugees shocked the world and the United Nations passed a resolution (688) establishing a security zone excluding flights Iraqis watched by British and American planes (“Operation Provide Comfort”); the area determined as a parallel boundary failing to Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk and other cities very important Kurdish population. Clashes between peixmergues (militiamen) Kurds and the Iraqi army remained on the ground and when the Iraqis achieve a certain balance of power, withdrew its military personnel and administrative zone (October 1991) allowing made an independent operation in South Kurdistan.
The two main parties, who led the revolt, the Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, took power and created a state legally autonomous and independent in fact; the flag of Kurdistan (based on the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad) was commonly used but not officially adopted by political considerations force until later. Democracy was complete with all kinds of Western freedoms, including rights of minorities such as Assyrians and Turkmens. The Iraqi imposed a total economic blockade in the region by reducing oil supplies and food. The Kurds also suffered from the embargo declared against Iraq by the United Nations.
The June 1992 elections were held and the deputies were distributed almost 50% between the two major parties and their allies. Soon conflicts erupted between the two parties for control of routes, trade and resources. After attempts to negotiate a union in September 1993 the conflict was more between 1994 and 1996 and there was an open war then cooled until 1998. After 1996, 13% of Iraqi oil sales were paid the regional government and that brought prosperity to the region. One smuggling route through autonomy (the area controlled by PDK) was established by Saddam Hussein himself, in collaboration with members of the Barzani family. The rights of passage customs of oil from Iraq and Kurdistan that Turkey posed by the millions of dollars that controlled Dohuk and Zakho. The “Oil for Food” established in 1997 that allowed Saddam to export oil in exchange for staples, did reduce smuggling and mitigate the conflict between the two parties. In September 1998, the US government imposed a permanent ceasefire two contenders (Washington Agreement).
In the second Gulf War the Kurds joined the Americans invaded Iraq (spring 2003). The two main parties were united in the Kurdish Alliance, which won 53 deputies in parliament in Baghdad (more than 5 of the Kurdish Islamic Union) and Jalal Talabani was elected president of the country. Masoud Barzani meanwhile was elected president of the Kurdistan Regional Government. The main disputes have been particularly Turkey in February 1998 when it launched a military operation to pursue members of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (which operates only in Turkey), but later improved relations.
Every four years held parliamentary elections in Kurdistan, the last on July 25, 2009. The main force was the list of the two main Kurdish parties, which won 59 seats. The list Gorran (Change) won 25 seats; Reform List (4 matches) won 13 seats; Islamic Movement won two seats and 11 seats for minorities were 5 Turkmen, Assyrians and 5 by 1 by Armenians. In the presidential election Masoud Barzani won a second term by 70% of the votes but Kamal Miraudeli (unknown liberal philosopher) reached 30%. Also every four years elections are councils of provincial governments (each with 41 members), the last in 2009.
Kurds in Iran
Kurdish history is full of war and conflict moments. At the end of World War I the movements of Turkish and Russian armies led the head of the Kurds or shikak Shahak, Ismail Agha Shikak known as Simko, could create a small Kurdish state which exercised all the authority, joining under its authority Kurdish tribes from the north, defeating the Turks, Assyrians and Iranian sides and changing depending on the circumstances. Around 1920 ruled unopposed entire region west of Lake Urmia Iranian superiority but finally prevailed in 1922 and had to flee to Turkey. Attracted a trap in 1930, was murdered by Iranian military Ushnu to 21 June 1930.
See State of Urmia and Kurdish Simko
Further south in Sanandadj the Qadjar Salar al-Dawla, related to the main Kurdish families from Sanandadj, revolted, but was defeated. Some Kurdish leaders kept fighting and the last DJAFER Sultan, did not surrender until 1930.
See Salar al-Dawla
The most important moment was the Iranian Kurds during World War II. After the Russo-British occupation (25 August 1941) and the abdication of Reza Shah (16 September 1941) the Kurds who were among the British and Soviet zones could challenge the central government. Hama Rasghid Paneh Khan began the revolt with the support of the tribes seized the region of Marivan-Baneh-Sardasht (summer 1942). In September 1942 in the territory they controlled what was missing was the central authority and no man’s land, settled government Komelai Jiyani autonomous Kurdistan (Kurdistan Committee of Resurrection), conservative format for bourgeois citizens Urban Mahabad old Sawdj-Bulak, but who joined religious leaders and tribal chiefs. Kadi Muhammad, a remarkable family and lawyer, took the (October 1944). At the end of the war was considered the favorable opportunity and was proclaimed on January 22, 1946 the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad in the autonomous republic of Azerbaijan in Tabriz that had formed. The state was a model of good organization. The army was small and consisted of tribal members under four generals and one of which was Molla Mustafa Barzani, who had come to Iraq with a contingent well equipped. When the Russians failed to protect the Republic of Azerbaijan (May 1946) the Iranian army and regained Mahabad province. Kazi Muhammad made submission but was hanged on 31 March 1947 with other leaders. Autonomy had lasted 11 months.
See Republic of Mahabad
Under the government of the Kurdish movement Shah lived in hiding. In September 1950 and again in February 1956, the tribe was massacred Djavanrudi with the excuse that he did not pay taxes and do not deliver weapons. But later the government tried to win the sympathies of the Kurdish population with various measures. When the Shah supported Mustafa Barzani in Iraq, he stopped to help Iranian Kurds; an Iranian Kurdish chief Sulaiman Muin, was executed by Barzani and delivered to Shah, who exhibited his body in Kermanshah and other Kurdish cities. The Kurdish movement disappeared in Iran.
In 1979, after the triumph of the revolution, the Kurds demanded autonomy; revolutionary guards as they entered the cities Mahabad, Paveh, Sanandaj, and faced the peshmergas (Kurdish militia). A Paveh fired on Kurdish civilians and made a massacre; This was the trigger for an uprising; the peshmergas seized the border and Mahabad. Kermanshah was attacked several times by guerrillas. The outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war in 1980 to hide the conflict continued until 1982.
Turkish struggle for independence
Areas inhabited by Kurds in 1986.
In response to the Treaty of Sevres, General Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the Turkish nationalist groups implement their plans for the release of Turkish foreign occupation as a result of the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal appealed to the religious element in unifying Kurds and Turks and an appeal aimed at the complete unity in the fight against the invaders of the “sacred Muslim lands.”
The Turkish War of Independence reached its greatest military victory by “major offensive” that culminated on September 9, 1922 with the defeat of the Greek army in the Aegean and western Anatolia. Meanwhile, the allies were quick to recognize de facto political independence of the new republic, fearing that Turkey’s Kemalist could happen to the Soviet camp. Under this reasoning, the Treaty of Lausanne, signed by Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, the Republic Serbo-Croat-Slovene and Turkey on 24 July 1923, acknowledged the Turkish state and divided Kurdish territory. Throughout the war, the Turkish officers were dedicated to fight any “threat” emerging in the region, specifically the formation of organizations or associations expressly Kurdish.
The Treaty of Lausanne was an undeniable victory for the Turks. For the Kurds, marked the beginning of a new phase of submission. Articles 40 to 45 specified that the minorities in question were “non-Muslim minorities” (Armenians, Greeks etc.). Authorities nationalists in Ankara refused to include among minority protected by constitutional provisions. Meanwhile, Turkish authorities adopt population policies aimed at encouraging the Turks to return the weight and balance in their favor in the new republic. From this moment the Kurdish uprising became an endemic phenomenon in the context of the Middle East, characterized by armed uprisings in Turkey, combined with periods of clashes in Iran and Iraq all along the twentieth century.
Acts Kurdish modern history
Kurdish traditional dress (1873).
- Treaty of Sevres, 10 August 1920 establishes the creation of an independent Kurdistan that would encompass Anatolia southeast (south of Lake Van) and the region of Mosul, but all was nothing differences tribal rejection of Turkish nationalist leader Kemal Ataturk. In this period, the Kurdish parties were divided into two branches: the party to maintain its autonomy in Turkey and who opted for independence.
- 1945 – 1948: Kurds demand the UN the independence of his country.
- 1945: Founding of the Republic of Mahabad (Iran) for one year.
- 1961 – 1970: Kurdish revolt in Iraq.
- 1970: The Kurds achieve mastery of an autonomous region in Iraq.
- 1975 – 1991: War between the Kurds and the armed forces in Iraq. This war was started by the Kurds.
- 1978: Abdullah Ocalan founded the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), which begins to operate in Turkey.
- 1980: The Kurdish guerrillas supporting the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation) and based in Syria, Iraq and Iran made hundreds of armed raids in southeast Turkey.
- 1984: The PKK unleashed an open war against Turkey.
- 1988: Attacks Iraqi Kurds with chemical weapons by Saddam Hussein.
- 1991: After the Gulf War, various Kurdish factions rise against Iraq.
- 1992: Iraqi Kurdish factions to form a government.
- April 12, 1995: Kurdish Parliament in Exile, established in The Hague.
- October 1998: Syria stops supporting the PKK.
- March 1999: Kenya is captured Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan. Turkey tried for high treason and murder, Ocalan was sentenced to death but appealed the judgment is currently before the European Court of Justice.
- 7 April 2011 Syrian President Bashar al-Assad issued a decree agrees citizenship to the inhabitants of Kurdish origin, of which they were deprived for nearly half a century in the north of the country.
Characters Kurds who have excelled in history
- Saladin (1138-1193) and Salah al-Din Yusuf al-Ayyub. Son of Ayyub, governor of Tikrit, and nephew of Shirkuh, lieutenant of Nur al-Din, lord of Syria (1146-1174). Shirkuh took control of the Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt (1169) in a military campaign paid by Nur al-Din and the same year was inherited by Saladin after the death of his uncle. Dissolved the Caliphate of Cairo (1171) and was proclaimed Sultan of Egypt, came into dispute with Nur al-Din, his lord. On the death of Nur al-Din (1174) took power in Syria, Armenia to the north, west and Mosul to Kurdistan (1186), and much of the United Croats (1187). Sultan Kurdish leader of the most powerful state in the East, died in Damascus, one of the greatest heroes of Islam.
- Ali ibn al-Athir (12 May 1160-1233) was a Kurdish Muslim historian born in Şırnak, Anatolia.
- Jalal Talabani, president of Iraq.
- Ehmedê Xanî, writer, poet and philosopher Kurdish.
- Nusrat Bhutto, former First Lady of Pakistan, Iranian Kurdish descent.
- Benazir Bhutto, Pakistani Prime Minister until his assassination in 2007, daughter of Nusrat Bhutto.