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Syria

What is happening in Syria?

The history of Syria understands the events that have taken place in this country from prehistoric times to the present, marked by geographic location. Its important to have a context in order to know what is happening in Syria at this time:

The region of Syria was the center of a civilization of great importance Semitic around the cities of Ebla and Ugarit. There took place the discovery of bronze.

Land of peace the country has been dominated by the Canaanites, Hittites, Hebrews, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Seleucid Empire, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Ottomans and French to its independence in 1946.
During 1950 and 1960, will succeed several coups and foreign relations were marked by opposition to the state of Israel.

What is happening in Syria?

Introduction

Around the year 200 BC, Syria was part of Aram. He was subjected to Egypt from about 1530 BC until 1250. In the eighth century BC, Assyria subdued the whole country, what happened to Babylon in the seventh century BC. Persia is annexed in 538 BC and seized it retained until Alexander the Great, 200 years later. In 64 BC became a Roman province, then was under Byzantine Empire until 634 AD, when passed into Muslim hands. In the second half of the eleventh century, having been taken by the Saracens, was occupied by the Seljuks and in 1516, the Battle of Mardj Dabik the Mamluk Sultanate lost the region in the hands of the Empire Ottoman, who retained until 1833, when it was conquered by Muhammad Ali Pasha, who returned to the Turks in 1840.

druze warriors what is happening in syria

The Turks remain masters of Syria until it was expelled by the English in 1918. France, since it intervened in Lebanon to curb the atrocities of the Turks, had maintained its political demands on Syria and its position was recognized special Anglo-French agreement in 1916. According to this, the British left the country, and the Supreme Council of the Allies gave France the mandate over Syria. In 1928, the Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution, but it did not get approval from France, which in 1929 dissolved the Assembly. In May 1930 sanctioned a new constitution. In June 1932, Muhammah Ali Bey el-Abed was elected president of the republic. In treaties signed at the end of 1936, France promised full independence of Syria within three years. In 1938, Syria was forced to cede the union of Alexandria in Turkey. Produced collapse of France, Syria was under the control of the Vichy government. In June 1941, British and French forces free, after a brief campaign, occupied Syria and solemnly announced the granting of independence. Recognized by the United Nations, the independence of Syria as a sovereign state, the French evacuated in 1946.

In the first years after the proclamation of independence, the internal politics of the country was very moved. On 14 August 1949, Colonel Zaim, head of the government, was assassinated. They formed a new ministry under the chairmanship of Hashem el-Atassi and took as army chief Sami el-Hinnani, who led the revolution against Zaim. On December 19 the same year, a second revolution encouraged and promoted by Colonel Adib Shishakli when the National Assembly was going to deal with the unity of Arab countries and the close collaboration with Iraq withdrew its command posts Sami el-Hinnani and other political leaders. As a result of new military coups (1951 and 1952), Colonel Adib Shishakli assumed all powers. In February 1954, a military coup made by Colonel Mustafa Hamdum forced the head of the state Chichakli to resign and flee to Saudi Arabia. The insurrectionists recognized as president of Syria politician Hashim al-Atassi, who was banished. In October of the same year were held parliamentary elections. The Syrian government carried out political talks with Lebanon and to fix the financial economic union between the two countries.

In 1955, the Syrian policy underwent a profound change; Chukri el-Kuatli, who had lived in exile in Egypt and shared the ideas of Colonel Nasser was elected president of the republic. El-Nasser and Kuatli agreed in their opposition to any project federation advocated expanding from Baghdad to Nuri Said, as well as adherence to the Saxon defense pacts. This policy was the approval and support of the USSR and aroused, however, serious mistrust of Turkey and Iraq. In the Soviet Union, they got plenty of arms shipments to Syria, the president visited Moscow.

Old Syria

In the land of Syria, was discovered first irrigation of crops, which enabled the settling of prehistoric humans. Also here were born techniques for working leather (kebarienca culture) and later the bronze. He participated in the Natufian period. The Ebla civilization was the first great culture Syriac.

Syria was conquered by the Egyptians in the sixteenth century BC, and two centuries later by the Hittites. Around 1200 BC, the Hebrews conquered its major cities, which became the eighth century BC Assyrian hands. In 539 BC, the Persians began raids and 334 BC, Alexander the Great sent troops to dominate the region. All these dominations There were leaving their cultural mark.

64 BC, Syria officially became a Roman province, with its capital in Antioch, one of the most populated cities in the world. Zenobia tried to rid the country of the Roman domination, without success. Religious disputes were one of the constants of the last Roman period, marked by heresy within Christianity and attempts to seize power plant.

Roman

Syria was a Roman province from 64 BC to 636.

In the period of Roman rule, the great city of Antioch (called the “Athens of the East”) was its provincial capital. It was one of the greatest cities of the ancient world, with an estimated population of 500,000 and was a thriving center of commerce and industry. In one of the richest and most populous cities in the provinces of the Roman Empire, it was estimated that the population of Syria in the early Roman Empire was only exceeded half of the twentieth century a Census of 78 million or more, including the territory of Palestine and Jordan River, excluding the eastern part of the current region beyond the Euphrates.

In Roman times, it was home to Syria Heliogàbal, a Roman emperor Severe Dynasty that reigned from 218 to 222. His family had hereditary priesthood of the sun god El-Gabal, whose Heliogàbal was the high priest in Emesa (today Homs) in Syria.

Paleocristianisme

Syria was important in the history of Christianity: Paul of Tarsus converted to this religion on the road to Damascus and emerged as a significant figure of the first nucleus of the Christian Church of Antioch, the first Jewish city that was not converting to Christianity, a city which often pilgrimage in his missionary journeys.

Islamic era

In the seventh century, Syria was conquered by the Arabs, and culture that dates back to Muslim conquest. Sections of the coastline of Syria were taken by Messrs francs during the Crusades in the twelfth century. In the thirteenth century, the Mongols came first, destroying cities and irrigation canals. At the end of the fifteenth century, the discovery of a sea route from Europe to the Far East ended the need for a trade route through Syria. Destroyed by the Mongols, Syria was part of the Ottoman Empire from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, and found herself extremely secluded and ignored by world affairs.

Medieval and modern Syria

Muawiyah I conquered Syria in the seventh century by the Umayyad dynasty. Damascus was the official residence of the caliph, in a country divided into five districts. During this period, he continued the precedent cultural splendor that diminished with the rise of the Abbasid branch, who moved the capital to Baghdad.

The Byzantine Empire made several attempts to regain control of Syria, a majority Christian population, but the area passed under Turkish control. In the Middle Ages, the Crusades were succeeded to release it, with mixed success, until it became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1516.

Centuries XX and XXI

Since 1860, Syria began a rapprochement with the West, which coincided with the rise of Arab nationalism. For Sykes-Picot agreements, Britain and France agreed to the distribution of Turkish territories among themselves after the First World War, and Syria was a portion of the French protectorate. The settlers did not accept this imperialism and internal revolts occurred, crushed by the French army permanently.

1946, after the Second World War, Syria achieved independence under President Shukri al-Kuwatli, who participated in the war against the creation of the state of Israel in 1948. He go near to Egypt (even temporarily formed a political union) and Soviet communism, he wanted to counter Western influence in the region. Strengthened the Baath Party (pro-Iraq), who came to the government on several occasions. Meanwhile, experienced a conflict with Lebanon, which had belonged to the same French colonial rule until 1991 peace (though Syrian troops remained there until 2005).

In the 80s, the Muslim Brotherhood took force, which proposed to abandon the Baathist secular values ​​and founding an Islamic republic.

In the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, there were several incidents happened with the United States invasion of Iraq since US troops entered several times in the lands of Syria and in 2007 during Operation Orchard The Israeli air force destroyed a Syrian nuclear facility. In the context of the Arab Spring, the government of Bashar al-Assad faced since 2011 Uprising in Syria in 2011.

Syrian Civil War

Syrian Civil War is an armed conflict from a broad protest movement against the Ba’athist regime, starting with demonstrations and anti-regime pro-regime.  Peaceful March 15, 2011, three months after the beginning of the so-called revolutionary climate Arab Spring. The movement is suppressed by Syrian forces in 2013 and still continues; the movement is transformed gradually in a conflict between two sides in the midst of armed civilians, and caused about 70,000 deaths so far. To cope with the regular army and its auxiliary forces, was established in 2011 and progressively structure a “Free Syrian Army” (ESL), based on a core of deserters and citizens.

While the Syrian government supported by Russia and China (for interest or principle of non-interference), especially the United Nations, the rebellion is supported by Western countries, and the ESL slowly backed and armed by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, has the help of CIA agents operating from Turkey. The ESL has been progressively strengthened and infiltrated by jihadis coming to the sphere of influence of Al Qaeda, which has led to distrust of certain states against this army and informal shocking and potentially sectarian nature of the conflict.

Once we can understand Syria´s recent history, lets see the last news about this region: